Medical Pharmacology Chapter 36:  Antiviral Drugs

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Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

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  1. Flexner C Antiretroviral Agents and Treatment of HIV Infection, Chapter 59  in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th edition (Brunton LL Chabner BA Knollmann BC, eds; Brunton LL, ed; Blumenthal DK  Murri N Hilal-Dandan R, assoc eds, Knollmann BC, consulting ed, on-line edition) The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2011.

  2. Fauci AS Lane HC Chapter 226, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease:  AIDS and Related Disorders, in Harrison's Online   (Kasper DL Fauci AS Hauser SL Longo DL Jameson JL Loscalzo J, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2015 (on-line edition)

  3. Longo DL Fauci AS  188, The Human Retroviruses, in Harrison's Online   (Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, J. Larry Jameson, Joseph Loscalzo, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2012.

  4. Woster PM Chapter 43:  Antiviral Agents and Protease Inhibitors in Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 6e, Lemke, TL Williams DA, eds; Roche VG Zito SW, asst eds) Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1214, 2008.

  5. HIV Overview:  The HIV Life Cycle, Education Materials, AIDSinfo, NIH

  6. Tsibris AMN Hirsch MS Chapter 130 Antiretroviral Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8e (Bennett JE Bolin R Blaser, eds) Elsevier, Inc/Saunders 2015, online version.

  7. Safrin S Chapter 49:  Antiviral Agents:  Antiretroviral Agents in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 13e (Katzung BG Trevor AJ, eds) 2015, online edition.

  8. HIV Overview:  The HIV Life Cycle, Education Materials, AIDSinfo, NIH

  9. Havlir DV Tierney C Friedland GH Pollard RB Smeaton L Sommadossi J-P Fox L Kessler H Fife KH Richman DD  Iv vivo Antagonism with Zidivudine plus Stavudine Combination Therapy. The Journal of Infectious Disease, 182(1) (July., 2000) 321-325.

  10. Gallant JE Gerondelis PZ Wainberg MA Shulman NS Haubrich RH St Clain M Lanier ER Hellmann NS Richman DD Nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors:  a clinical review of antiretroviral resistance.  Antiviral Therapy 8:  489-506.; (second sourced from reference 1 above)

  11. Wensing AM Calvez V Gunthard JF Johnson VA Paredes R Pillay D Shafer RW Richman DD Special Contribution:  2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Multations in HIV-1 Topics in Antivral Medicine 22(3)  June/July 2014,

  12. Naeger LK Margo NA Miller MD ATP-Dependent Removal of Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase.  Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, July 2002, p. 2179-2184, (second sourced from reference 1 above).

  13. Eron JJ Benoid SL Jemsek J MacArchur RD Santana J Quinn JB Kutitzkes DR Fallon MA Rubin M Treatment with Lamivudine, zidovudine, or both in HIV-positive patients with 200 to 500 CD4+ cells per cubic millimeter. The New England Journal of Medicine 333(25): 1662-1669, 1995, . (second sourced from reference 1 above)

  14. Wainberg M Mechanisms of Nucleoside Analogue Antiretroviral Resistance, 2013

  15. Chow DC Day LJ Shikuma CM Lipoatrophy: facial fat loss.  HIV/AIDS,  U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs:  Image Library | Lipoatrophy/Lipoaccumulation

  16. LaBonte J Lebbos J Kirkpatrick nature Reviews Drug Discovery 2, 345-346 (May 2003). (Slight modification of Fig. 1); Original figure attribution:  Kilby JM Hopkins S Venetta TM

  17. Wood BR NRTI Resistance (5/9/13; published 5/29/14)



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