Medical Pharmacology Chapter 36:  Antiviral Drugs

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  1. Flexner C Antiretroviral Agents and Treatment of HIV Infection, Chapter 59  in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th edition (Brunton LL Chabner BA Knollmann BC, eds; Brunton LL, ed; Blumenthal DK  Murri N Hilal-Dandan R, assoc eds, Knollmann BC, consulting ed, on-line edition) The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2011.

  2. Fauci AS Lane HC Chapter 226, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease:  AIDS and Related Disorders, in Harrison's Online   (Kasper DL Fauci AS Hauser SL Longo DL Jameson JL Loscalzo J, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2015 (on-line edition)

  3. Longo DL Fauci AS  188, The Human Retroviruses, in Harrison's Online   (Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, J. Larry Jameson, Joseph Loscalzo, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2012.

  4. Woster PM Chapter 43:  Antiviral Agents and Protease Inhibitors in Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 6e, Lemke, TL Williams DA, eds; Roche VG Zito SW, asst eds) Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1214, 2008.

  5. HIV Overview:  The HIV Life Cycle, Education Materials, AIDSinfo, NIH

  6. Tsibris AMN Hirsch MS Chapter 130 Antiretroviral Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8e (Bennett JE Bolin R Blaser, eds) Elsevier, Inc/Saunders 2015, online version.

  7. Safrin S Chapter 49:  Antiviral Agents:  Antiretroviral Agents in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 13e (Katzung BG Trevor AJ, eds) 2015, online edition.

  8. Wensing AM Calvez V Gunthard JF Johnson VA Paredes R Pillay D Shafer RW Richman DD Special Contribution:  2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Multations in HIV-1 Topics in Antivral Medicine 22(3)  June/July 2014,

  9. Gallant JE Gerondelis PZ Wainberg MA Shulman NS Haubrich RH St Clain M Lanier ER Hellmann NS Richman DD Nucleoside and nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors:  a clinical review of antiretroviral resistance.  Antiviral Therapy 8:  489-506, 2003; (second sourced from reference 1 above)

  10. Hervey PS Perry CM Abacavir:  A Review of its Clinical Potential In Patients with HIV Infection. Drugs 60(2)  447-479 August, 2000. (second sourced from reference 1).

  11. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS).  AIDS Info: Clinical Guidelines portal.

  12. Chapman TM McGavin JK Noble S Tenofiovir Disoproxil Fumarate Drugs 63(15):  1597-1608 2003

  13. Gallant JE Moore RD Renal function with use of a tenofovir-containing initial antiretroviral regimen.  AIDS 23(15):  1971-1975 Sept. 2, 2009.

  14. Scherzer R Estrella M L Choi AI Deeks SG Grunfeld C Shipak MG Association of tenofovir exposure with kidney disease risk in HIV infection.  AIDS 26:  867-875 2912,

  15. Foster C Lyall H Olmscheid B Pearce G Zhang S Gibb DM Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in pregnancy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1:  is it time to move on from zidovudine?  HIV Medicine 10:  397-406, 2009

  16. Gallant JE Staszewski S Pozniak AL DeJusus E Suleiman JMAH Miller MD Coakley DF Lu B Toole JJ Cheng AK Efficacy and Safety of Tenofovir DF vs Stavudine in Combination Therapy in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients:  A 3-year Randomized Trial. JAMA 292(2):  191-201, 2004.

  17. RxList:  The Internet Drug Index:  Truvada, Indications and Dosage



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