Medical Pharmacology Chapter 36:  Antiviral Drugs

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  1. Flexner C Antiretroviral Agents and Treatment of HIV Infection, Chapter 59  in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th edition (Brunton LL Chabner BA Knollmann BC, eds; Brunton LL, ed; Blumenthal DK  Murri N Hilal-Dandan R, assoc eds, Knollmann BC, consulting ed, on-line edition) The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2011.

  2. Fauci AS Lane HC Chapter 226, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease:  AIDS and Related Disorders, in Harrison's Online   (Kasper DL Fauci AS Hauser SL Longo DL Jameson JL Loscalzo J, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2015 (on-line edition)

  3. Longo DL Fauci AS  188, The Human Retroviruses, in Harrison's Online   (Dan L. Longo, Anthony S. Fauci, Dennis L. Kasper, Stephen L. Hauser, J. Larry Jameson, Joseph Loscalzo, Eds.),  Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th edition, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2012.

  4. Woster PM Chapter 43:  Antiviral Agents and Protease Inhibitors in Foye's Principles of Medicinal Chemistry 6e, Lemke, TL Williams DA, eds; Roche VG Zito SW, asst eds) Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1214, 2008.

  5. HIV Overview:  The HIV Life Cycle, Education Materials, AIDSinfo, NIH

  6. Tsibris AMN Hirsch MS Chapter 130 Antiretroviral Therapy for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 8e (Bennett JE Bolin R Blaser, eds) Elsevier, Inc/Saunders 2015, online version.

  7. Safrin S Chapter 49:  Antiviral Agents:  Antiretroviral Agents in Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 13e (Katzung BG Trevor AJ, eds) 2015, online edition.

  8. Wensing AM Calvez V Gunthard JF Johnson VA Paredes R Pillay D Shafer RW Richman DD Special Contribution:  2014 Update of the Drug Resistance Multations in HIV-1 Topics in Antivral Medicine 22(3)  June/July 2014,

  9. AIDSinfo:  Guidelines for the Use of Antriretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents (2015)

  10. Hicks C Gulick RM Raltegravir:  The First HIV Type 1 Integrase Inhibitor. Clin Infect Disease Apr. 1; 48(7):  931-939 2009.

  11. Huzuda D and the Merck Integrase Inhibitor Team (Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase:  From the Bench to the Bedside, and Back Again), 21 February, 2009; uploaded Dec. 22, 2009.

  12. PommierY Hohnson AA Marchand C Integrase Inhibitors to Treat HIV/AIDS Nature Review (Drug Discovery) 4:  235-248 March 2005 (

  13. Hopur:  "Structure active relationship of elvitegravir and raltegravir.  Benzyl group in a hydrophobic pocket and a triad to chelate the two Mg2+ ions."

  14. Evering TH Markowitz M HIV-1 Integrase Inhibitors PRN Notebook 13 1-9, June 2008

  15. HIV Drug Resistance Data Base (Stanford University):  Integrase Inhibitor Resistance Notes (3/2014),

  16. Iwamoto MWenning LA Petryy AS Laethem m De Smet M Kost JT Merschman SA Strohmaier KM Ramael S Lasseter KC Stone JA Gottesdiener KM Wagner JA Safety, Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Raltegravir After Single and Multiple Doses in Healthy Subjects. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 83:(2), 293-299,  February 2008. (

  17. NCBI:  Gene-UGT1A1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 [Homo sapiens (human)] Gene ID: 54658 (updated 30-Aug-2015)

  18. Reust CE Common Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Disease.  American Family Physician 83(12):  1443-1451 June 15, 2011.

  19. Lennox JL deJusus E Berger DS Lazzarin A Pollard RB Madruga JVR Zhao J Wan H Gilbert CL Teppler H Rodgers AJ Barnard RJO Miller MD CiNubil MJ Nguyen B-Y Leavitt R Sklar P for the STARTMRK Investigators Raltegravir Versus Efavirenz Regiments in Treatment-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients:  96-Week Efficacy, Durability, Subgroup, Safety, and Metabolic Analyses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndrom 55:  39-48 2010.

  20. Test ID:  HLA57-HLA-B 5701 Genotype, Abacavir Hypersensitvity Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical Laboratories.

  21. Lennox JL DeJesus E Lazzarin A Pollard RB Madruga JVR Berger DS Zhao J Xu X Williams-Diaz A Rodgers AJ Barnard RJO Miller MD DiNubile MJ Ngyen B-Y Leavitt R Sklar P, for the STARTMRK investigators Safety and efficacy of raltegravir-based versus efavirenz-based combination therapy in treatment nave patients with HIV-1 infection:  a multicentre, double-blind randomised controlled trial. Lancet 374:  796-806 2009.

  22. Rockstroh JK DeJesus E Lennox JL Yazdanpanah Y Saag MS Wan H Rodgers AJ Walker ML Miller M DiNubile MJ Nguyen B-Y Teppler H Leavitt R Sklar for the STARTMRK Investigators Durable efficacy and safety of raltegravir versus efavirenz when combined with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-nave HIV-1-infected patients:  Final 5-year results from STARTMRK  J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63(1) 77-85 May 1, 2013.

  23. Comparisons of effects of atazanavir, raltegravir or darunavir with FTC/tenofovir on biomarkers of systemic inflammation, macrophage and T cell activation:  ACTG" AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Kelesidis T Tran TTT McComsey GA Brown TT Moser C Ribaudo HJ Rothenberg J Yang OO Stein JH Currier JS Abstract WEAB0106LB, IAS 2014, July 23, 2014.



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