Medical Pharmacology Chapter 36:  Antiviral Drugs

Previous Page Page Forward
Section Table of Contents
Site Table of Contents
Previous Page Page Forward
Section Table of Contents
Site Table of Contents


  1. Wang F Kieff E Medical Viriology, Cahpter 177 Section 11:  Viral Diseases:  General Considerations (in Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th edition, Longo DF Fauci AS Kasper DL Hauser SL Jameson JL Loscalzo J, eds) McGraw-Hill, New York, 2012, pp 1432-1433.

  2. MacArthur RD Novak RM Maraviron: The first of a new class of antiretroviral agents Clinical infectious Diseases 47(2) (July 15, 2008) pp 236-241.

  3. Steve Dewhurst, Ph.D., Structure of the CC-chemokine, RANTES, (c) University of Rochester and Stephen Dewhurst, 1999

  4. Swaminathan J and MSD staff (European Bioinformatics Institute) .

  5. Splettstoesser T CCR5+membrane

  6. Tilakaratne N Sexton PM G-protein-coupled receptor protein interactions:  basis for new concepts on receptor structure and function.  Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 32:  979-987, 2005.

  7. Samson M Libert F Doranz BJ Rucker J Liesnard C Farber CM Saragosti S Lapoumeroulie C Cognaux J Forceille C Muyldermans G Verhofstede C Burtonboy G Georges M Imai T Rana S yi Y Smyth RJ Collman RG Doms RW Vassart G Parmentier M Resistance to HIV-1 infection in caucasian individual bearing mutant alleles of the CCR-5 chemokine receptor gene Nature 382(6593) 722-725, 1996.

  8. Lu K Gulick RM (Based on a presentation at PRN by Roy M. Gulick, MD, MPH New antiretrovirals for the treatment of HIV;  the view in 2006.  The PRN Notebook 11(2) October 2006. The figure corresponds to Figure 2 in this reference and was derived by the authors from an original image by Robert W. Doms, MD, Ph.D. The figure in on this page has been slightly modified from its original form in reference 8.

  9. Flexner C Chapter 59.  Antiretroviral Agents and Treatment of HIV Infection (in Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12 e, Brunton LL Chabner BA Knollmann BC, eds) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2011.

  10. Shankarappa R Margolick JB Gange SJ Rodrigo AG Upchurch D Farzadegan H Gupta P Rinaldo CR Learn GH He X Huang X-L Mullins JI Consistent viral evolutional changes associated with the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Journal of Virology 73(12) 10489-10502, Dec 1999.

  11. Vetrivel U Sankar P Nagarajan Nk Subramanian G Peptidomimetics based inhibitor design for HIV-1 gp120 attachment protein. J Proteomics Bioinform 2:481-484 2009.

  12. Saven J CCR5:  HIV binding and Maraviroc inhibtion (For CHEM 251:  Biochemistry, Spring 2014, Video by Zachary Goldsmith), University of Pennsylvania, 2014.

  13. Tan Q Zhu Y Li J Chen Z Han GW Kufareva I Li T Ma L Fenalti G Li J Zhang W Xie X Yang H Jiang H Cherezov V Liu H Stevens RC Zhao Q Beili W Science 341 20 September 2013 1387-1390.



This Web-based pharmacology and disease-based integrated teaching site is based on reference materials, that are believed reliable and consistent with standards accepted at the time of development. Possibility of human error and on-going research and development in medical sciences do not allow assurance that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete. Users should confirm the information contained herein with other sources. This site should only be considered as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate biomedical education and is intended only as a teaching site. Information contained here should not be used for patient management and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing medical professionals. Users of this website should check the product information sheet included in the package of any drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this site is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration.  Advertisements that appear on this site are not reviewed for content accuracy and it is the responsibility of users of this website to make individual assessments concerning this information.  Medical or other information  thus obtained should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing medical or scientific or other professionals.