Medical Pharmacology Chapter 32: Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones
Intermediary metabolism effects
Required for lactation
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): anterior pituitary synthesis
Male and female gonadal control
Thyroid function regulation
Regulation: adrenocortical glucocorticoid functions
Vasopressin (AVP; antidiuretic hormone, ADH): synthesis site: hypothalamic neurons; storage site: posterior pituitary.
AVP: regulation of renal water conservation
Oxytocin: required for milk let-down; may assist in parturition
Feedback between anterior pituitary and its three target glands
If gonads fail or removed then LH and FSH increased (primary hypogonadism)
With adrenal cortex destruction/removal, primary adrenal-insufficiency occurs (Addison's disease) with increased serum ACTH concentration
Thyroid failure leads to primary hypothyroidism resulting in increased TSH
With removal/destruction of the pituitary gland, trophic hormone is lost.
With removal/destruction of the pituitary gland: no effect on vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin provided intact hypothalamus.
Primary Reference: Fitzgerald, P.A. and Klonoff, D.C. Hypothalamic and Pituitary Hormones, in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, (Katzung, B. G., ed) Appleton-Lange, 1998, pp 603-618.
Primary Reference: Biller, Beverly M. K. and Daniels, Gilbert, H. Neuroendocrine Regulation and Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary and Hypothalamus, In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 14th edition, (Isselbacher, K.J., Braunwald, E., Wilson, J.D., Martin, J.B., Fauci, A.S. and Kasper, D.L., eds) McGraw-Hill, Inc (Health Professions Division), 1998, pp 1972-1998
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