Anesthesia Pharmacology: Autonomic Pharmacology: Cholinergic Drugs
GI smooth muscle stimulant
Postoperative abdominal distention
Esophageal reflux; promotes increased esophageal motility (other drugs are more effective, e.g. dopamine antagonist (metoclopramide) or serotonin agonists (cisapride)
Urinary bladder stimulant
Post-operative; post-partum urinary retention
Alternative to pilocarpine to treat diminished salivation secondary, for example. to radiation
Carbachol not used due to more prominent nicotinic receptor activation
Methacholine used for diagnostic purposes.
Testing for bronchial hyperreactivity and asthma
Acetylcholine and Carbachol may be used for intraocular use as a miotic in surgery
Carbachol may be used also in treatment of glaucoma.
Pilocarpine is used in management of glaucoma and has become the standard initial drug for treating the open-angle form.
Sequential adminstration of atropine (mydriatic) and pilocarpine (miotic) is used to break iris-lens adhesions.
Asthma: Choline esters (muscarinic agonists) can produce bronchoconstriction. In the predisposed patient, an asthmatic attack may be induced.
Hyperthyroidism: Choline esters (muscarinic agonists) can induce atrial fibrillation in hyperthyroid patients.
Peptic ulcer: Choline esters (muscarinic agonists), by increasing gastric acid secretion, may exacerbate ulcer symptoms.
Coronary vascular disease: Choline esters (muscarinic agonists), as a result of their hypotensive effects, can further compromise coronary blood flow.
Loss of visual accommodation
Brown, J.H. and Taylor, P. Muscarinic Receptor Agonists and Antagonists, In, Goodman and Gillman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, (Hardman, J.G, Limbird, L.E, Molinoff, P.B., Ruddon, R.W, and Gilman, A.G.,eds) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.,1996, pp.149-150.
This Web-based pharmacology teaching site is based on reference materials, that are believed reliable and consistent with standards accepted at the time of development. Possibility of human error and on-going research and development in medical sciences do not allow assurance that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete. Users should confirm the information contained herein with other sources. This site should only be considered as a teaching aid for undergraduate and graduate biomedical education and is intended only as a teaching site. Information contained here should not be used for patient management and should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing medical professionals. Users of this website should check the product information sheet included in the package of any drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this site is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration. Advertisements that appear on this site are not reviewed for content accuracy and it is the responsibility of users of this website to make individual assessments concerning this information. Medical or other information thus obtained should not be used as a substitute for consultation with practicing medical or scientific or other professionals.