Anesthesia Pharmacology: Histamine
Physiologic antagonists: example -- epinephrine, agents that produce opposing effects, acting and different receptors
Release inhibitors: reduced mast cell degranulation: example: cromolyn and nedocromil
Receptor antagonists: selective blockade of histamine receptors (H1, H2, H3 types)
H1 receptor blockers exhibit competitive antagonism for H1 receptor sites whereas little effects at H2 receptor sites and negligible effects of H3 sites are observed.
H1 receptor blockers prevent bronchiolar or gastrointestinal smooth muscle constriction
H1 receptor blockers do not completely prevent cardiovascular effects (some of these effects are mediated by H2 receptors)
H1 receptor blockers cannot affect increases in gastric acid secretion or mast cell histamine release because these effects are H2 receptor site-mediated.
H1 antagonists include both first-generation and second-generation compounds
Both categories of agents are orally active and are metabolized by the liver using the cytochrome P450 drug-metabolizing system
The average duration of pharmacological action is about 4-6 hours
Meclizine (Antivert) and several second-generation drugs far longer acting, with effects lasting 12-24 hours.
First-generation agents tend to be relatively more sedating and more likely than second-generation drugs to block autonomic receptors.
For example, antimuscarinic effects [blockade of cholinergic, muscarinic-type receptors]
Second-generation agents are relatively less sedating compared to the earlier first-generation agents and exhibit less CNS penetration, which accounts for reduced sedation.
Some of the second-generation agents are metabolized by a cytochrome P450 type that is inhibited by other drugs, such as the antifungal agent ketoconazole (Nizoral).
Therefore, plasma concentrations of certain second generation H1 antagonists may increase, even the toxic levels, if the patients also taking drugs such as ketoconazole (Nizoral) or erythromycin estolate (Ilosone).
endothelium, brain, smooth muscle
mast cells, gastric mucosa, cardiac muscle, brain
Some important histamine promoted effects occur not true histamine's interaction with histamine receptors but by histamine interaction with other receptors.
Many of these interactions are responsible for "side effects" associated with antihistamines medications.
One prominent example is the side effect of sedation.
The side effect is the basis for antihistamine use as a sleep aid.
Burkhalter, A, Julius, D.J. and Katzung, B. Histamine, Serotonin and the Ergot Alkaloids (Section IV. Drugs with Important Actions on Smooth Muscle), in Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, (Katzung, B. G., ed) Appleton-Lange, 1998, pp 261-286.
Friedman, L. S. and Peterson, W.L. Peptic Ulcer and Related Disorders In Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 14th edition, (Isselbacher, K.J., and Braunwald, E., Wilson, J.D., Martin, J.B., Fauci, A.S. and Kasper, D.L., eds) McGraw-Hill, Inc (Health Professions Division), 1998, pp. 1597-1616.